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dc.coverage.spatialDiscovery location: Tell Halaf (Syria)en_US
dc.creatorUnknownen_US
dc.date.accessioned2007-08-03T20:43:55Z
dc.date.available2007-08-03T20:43:55Z
dc.identifier034916en_US
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/1721.3/19938en_US
dc.descriptionbas-relief of a human figure holding a bow and arrow, ready to aim; figure has a stylized hair style of aligned bead shapes, and wears a close-fitting cap in a grid pattern and a short loincloth"Site in north-east Syria, near the source of the River Khabur and the modern town of Ra's al-'Ayn. It is famous for its prehistoric pottery and its 1st-millennium bc palace with sculptured portico and reliefs. It was discovered and excavated by Baron Max von Oppenheim between 1911 and 1929. Objects and sculpture from the site are preserved in the National Museum of Aleppo, the British Museum in London and the Pergamonmuseum in Berlin. Tell Halaf was already settled during the Neolithic and Chalcolithic periods. It gave its name to a widespread culture of the 6th to 5th millennium bc, characterized by painted pottery of high quality (see Mesopotamia, §V, 1). During the Neo-Assyrian period (between c. 1000 and 600 bc) the site was known as Guzana. At first it was the capital of one of the petty north Syrian states that developed after the fall of the Hittite empire (c. 1200 bc) and the end of Middle Assyrian rule over north Mesopotamia. The name of this state, Bit Bahiani, as well as the names of local rulers known from cuneiform sources, indicate that the Aramaeans were the leading population group. During the 9th century bc Guzana came under the supremacy of the Neo-Assyrian empire, first as a vassal state, then as a province; at that time it lost most of its importance. The flourishing period of Guzana is thus restricted to about 150 years between 950 and 800 bc. At that time it was a walled city of rectangular shape c. 1000˙600 m. An inner defensive wall enclosed the citadel (c. 400˙300 m), where the more important public buildings were concentrated. Part of this citadel, probably again enclosed by a fortification wall, was the palace area. Since only a small part of it has been excavated, its layout can only be reconstructed hypothetically, taking contemporary north Syrian cities as models. The most important building was the so-called Temple-Palace, a building of the north Syrian porticoed palace type (bit hilani), richly adorned with gate sculptures and orthostats made of basalt and red-stained limestone. Many of the orthostats bear inscriptions of a certain ‘Kapara, son of Hadiani’, who was the builder of this complex. Only scant remains of an earlier building are preserved, but a number of reused orthostats from the rear of the later building has been associated with the earlier building phase. These orthostats, which form a distinctive stylistic group, are characterized by a somewhat crude execution and by a rich repertory of themes: various animals occur frequently, such as lions, stags and boars, as well as hybrid creatures, for instance lion-men, sphinxes or genii. Human beings can be seen in a variety of different scenes, sometimes as hunters or warriors. Some chariot scenes show similarities with Neo-Assyrian representations of the same theme, but in general the imagery has little to do with Assyrian art of the 9th century bc. The few representations of gods show the influence of 2nd-millennium bc prototypes; in this respect the art of Tell Halaf can be compared with that of Neo-Hittite sculptures such as those from Carchemish. The peculiar style and composition of the reliefs are also found in the decorative arts, especially in ivories of the 2nd and 1st millennium bc. The fully developed Kapara sculptures (those not inherited but made especially for the hilani building) are more carefully executed and larger in size, but it is evident that their style is a development from that of the earlier group. To this later style belongs the impressive group from the main entrance, now reconstructed in the National Museum in Aleppo, which comprises two statues of gods and one of a goddess, mounted on lions and bulls, and carrying the architrave over the entrance, two sphinxes flanking the entrance and a number of orthostats. The gods represented seem to belong to the realm of Teshub, the Hurrian storm god venerated in a large part of northern Syria. His name is mentioned in the bilingual inscription of a ruler of Guzana, written in Aramaic and cuneiform on a statue (Damascus, N. Mus.) dedicated to this god. This statue, made in a more Assyrianizing style, was found on the neighbouring site of Tell Fekheriye. Other sculptures found at Tell Halaf itself are the doorjambs of the ‘Scorpion Gate’ (the entry to the palace area), and two cuboid sitting figures, probably of members of the royal family, which had been erected on top of their graves (see fig.). The art of Guzana is the best example of a local school of art, which was independent of the Assyrian tradition to the east and of the Hittite tradition to the west and which might reasonably be called ‘Aramaean’."en_US
dc.description, 1993en_US
dc.format.extentheight: 66 cm, height: 25.98 inches, depth: 23 cm, depth: 9.06 inches, length: 41 cm, length: 16.14 inchesen_US
dc.format.mediumbasalt (basic igneous rock)en_US
dc.relation.ispartof124645en_US
dc.subjectArchersen_US
dc.subjectArcheryen_US
dc.subjectPalacesen_US
dc.subjectTemplesen_US
dc.subjectBas-reliefen_US
dc.subjectExcavations (Archaeology)en_US
dc.subjectLost architectureen_US
dc.subjectSyria --Antiquitiesen_US
dc.titleAramite Archer Bas-Relief from Tell Halafen_US
dc.title.alternativeArcher Araméenen_US
dc.typeImageen_US
dc.rights.accessAll rights reserveden_US
dc.publisher.institutionRepository: Aleppo Museum (Aleppo, Syria) ID: inv. 7537en_US
vra.culturalContextAssyrianen_US
vra.techniquebas-reliefen_US
vra.worktypeBas-relief (sculpture)en_US
dc.contributor.displayAssyrianen_US


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